Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Period 2: copy the folloiwng notes into your science notebook on the same page as the notes for GAS EXCHANGE lesson:

Take Away:
o        The Respiratory System:
§     includes lungs, trachea (windpipe), bronchial tubes, alveoli;
§     takes in air to get Oxygen, or O2 so cells can get energy from food;
§     absorbs O2 across the thin walls of the alveoli into capillaries (tiny blood vessels), so the circulatory system can carry O2 to all cells;

§     exhales Carbon Dioxide, CO2, a waste product from the body's breakdown of food.

Period 4: answer the Anticipation Guide: Gas Exchange

Monday, November 20, 2017

Gas Exchange Act. 17 Answer Analysis Questions

Per. 6 & 7 (formerly 7 & 8) : Work on the whole packet:

All other sections:
Answer the Questions from Activity 17 in the online book or answer these:

Name _______________________________ Date _______ per.______

Activity 17 – Gas Exchange

   1.    What was the purpose of the solution in Cup A?
The purpose of the solution in Cup A was that the solution acted as a ___________________ in the experiment.

a.    Which of the solutions in Part A contained Carbon Dioxide (CO2)? Support your answer with evidence from your experimental results.

b.    What does this tell you about the exhaled breath of human beings?
c.    Look at the table below. Compare (contrast) the composition of air you breathe in to that of air you breathe out. Describe the differences. (Hint: which gases go up in percentage? Which gases go down?)

    3.    (skip)

    4.    Look again at the diagram of the human respiratory system. Considering all the oxygen that has to get into your blood and all the CO2 that has to escape from your blood, why do you think the inside of the lung is structured the way it is?

    5.    A. Were the data collected in Part A qualitative or quantitative? Explain. __________________________________________________
B. Were the data collected in Part B qualitative or quantitative? Explain.

    6.    A. Look carefully at the diagram of the human respiratory system. What are some of the other structures in the respiratory system?
6.b. Explain where gases are exchanged within the respiratory system.

    7.   Complete the Anticipation Guide for this activity and attach it here to turn it in.

    8.   Reflection: Many respiratory diseases limit a person’s capacity to exchange oxygen. One of these diseases is pneumonia., Which causes the alveoli to fill up with fluid.  Another disease is pleurisy, which is an inflammation of the lining of the lung, making it painful to inhale and exhale. If you had one of these diseases, how do you think you  would feel? 


Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Note: Body Works Unit 1 Test is planned for Wed. Nov. 15

Please complete and re-read your Study Guide for unit test. This Study Guide was passed out in class Thursday, evaluated today.
  Please be sure to bring in your 
Study Guide to the test on Wednesday. 

SPS/  Body Works
Study Guide
With Answers
1.What is the primary purpose of making observations?
a.Making predictions
b.Putting together facts
c.Reaching conclusions that don’t need a factual basis (opinions, like best color)
d.Gathering data.

2. A well-designed experiment includes:
          a. No control group or a control group

2. A well-designed experiment includes:
         b. Small sample size or large sample size

2. A well-designed experiment includes:
         c. Procedures that others can recreate & repeat……
          or are not reproducible

2. A well-designed experiment includes:

          d. One trial only……or  multiple trials

3. What is a variable?  Define:
Any factor that can affect the outcome of the experiment.

4. What are the 3 types of variables discussed in class? Name them.
a)_Independent  (memory trick for this one is:  Change)
b)_Dependent  _ (memory trick for this one is:  Result you measure)
c)_Constant_ (memory trick for this one is:  Stays the Same)

5. What would be an example of the three types of variables? Natalie’s new plant fertilizer ….
a.Independentthe thing that was changed in the experiment was some plants got fertilizer and some did not.  
                                                                                                - Why is it important to only have one?
Because otherwise if an experiment had more than one independent variable, we could not tell what caused any effects, or changes in result.

5. What would be an example of the three types of variables? Natalie’s new plant fertilizer ….
b. dependent – The Result measured at the end is the average height of the plants with fertilizer, and of the plants without fertilizer.

5. What would be an example of the three types of variables? Natalie’s new plant fertilizer ….
c. controlled (or constant) – would include any of the following variables that stayed the same:
¨type of seed,
¨Type of soil
¨Type of planters
¨amount of soil;
¨amount of water;
¨amount of air;
¨amount of light;
¨Amount of time to grow (4 weeks).

6. Write a hypothesis for Natalie’s experiment:
IF Natalie gives fertilizer to some plants, then the fertilized plants will grow taller than plants that don’t get fertilized.”

8. What was the cause of Pellagra found by Dr. Goldberger?
Prisoners and orphans survived on a poor diet of fatback, cornbread and syrup.
Dr. Goldberger found that this low quality /low variety diet of food causes pellagra.

9. Write a hypothesis for Dr. Goldberger’s experiment:
¨If Prisoners and orphans with pellagra eat only a good diet (with bread, fruits, vegetables, milk, healthy proteins a/k/a meat)then their pellagra will be cured.
¨If Prisoners eat only a poor diet (of fatback, cornbread and syrup), then they will get pellagra.

10. Explain how Dr. Goldberger limited variables to find the real cause of pellagra.  Why was this important?
Answer: Dr. Goldberger eliminated* the other proposed causes (bad corn, bacteria, insects), and helped establish that the poor Southern diet causes pellagra.

* Gave them clean clothes & beds, made them take showers every day, put screens on windows, etc. to eliminate insects and limit bacteria.

11. What was the biggest problem with Dr. Goldberger’s experiment?
a. No control group (in other words, no group that got a good diet). 
b. Small sample size (only about 12 prisoners)

c. Procedures that are not reproducible

12. How could Dr. Goldberger have increased the sample size of his experiment?
Gotten more prisoners, or added civilians or students or other large groups.

13. Read this table and answer the lettered questions below it:
b. Did Natalie collect quantitative data or qualitative data? Explain your answer.
c. Did Natalie’s experiment have a constant (control, or basis for comparison)?
Yes, group with no fertilizer

14. What is another word for “function”?   __ __ __
J  O  B

15. What is the function of alveoli?  What would happen to a baby born with undeveloped alveoli?
Trade CO2 for O2
Could not Trade CO2 for O2, so baby won’t be able to breathe without doctors’ help

16. Define “structure”. 
¨The way that an organ or body part is made up, including its shape and tissues.
(or, How something is put together to help it do its job).

17. How are bones structured to make them strong? (Hint: what’s on the inside? What’s on the outside?)
Cells on the outside are coated with minerals, which makes them very strong. ON the inside, are less dense cells (“marrow”) that make blood cells.

18. Organ systems: What are the functions and organs/parts of each system? 
a)Ex: Excretory system – organs that work together to filter out and eliminate the body’s liquid wastes, or urine. This system’s parts include the: __________, ____________,  ___________, and _______.
b.Answer: kidney, ureters, bladder, urethra.

b) Ex: nervous system –organs...that control actions of …organs & systems by receiving and processing sensory info…, and coordinating ….reactions. 
Parts discussed in class: _________, ___________, and _________. The special name for nerve cells is : _____________.
 Answer: brain, spinal cord, nerves (incl. sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons). Special name: neuron.
Function: Take information, process it, dictate a response.

c. Circulatory system – Answer: heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, blood.
Function: transports oxygen and food to cells throughout the body, gets rid of carbon dioxide, wastes.

d. respiratory systemAnswer:
lungs, bronchial tubes, alveoli, mouth and nose.
Exchanges O2 for CO2 (waste).

emuscular system – 
Answer: *types of muscles:_________, _________, and smooth muscle.  Which of these types can we consciously control?
Skeletal , cardiac, smooth. Only skeletal muscles can be consciously controlled, so we say they are voluntary.

f) skeletal system – Answer: Functions include support, movement, protection, and make blood cells. Main parts include: skull, spinal column, ribs, long bones, pelvis.

g) digestive system  
Answer: a) path of food: mouth + teeth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
b) Not in the path, but feed digestive chems: Gall Bladder under Liver & Pancreas (GuLP)
c) Name 3 functions of the liver: 1) cleans blood, 2) breaks down toxins, 3) produces bile, 4) stores glycogen, 5) makes cholesterol, 6) converts nutrients & medicines into usable materials.

     d. digestive system  
Answer: d) which organs use:
mechanical breakdown?
Chemical breakdown – small intestine
Both – mouth (teeth + saliva), stomach
vNeither – esophagus, Large intestine, rectum, anus

     e. Does mechanical breakdown help chemical breakdown?  Answer: _Yes__ If so, how?
v Food that has been mechanically broken down has more surface area, so it can be chemically broken down faster.

19. Levels of Organization
¨show how the human body is organized from smallest to largest:                                
Cells --> Tissues--> Organs--> Organ systems--> Organism

20. What is a cell?
The smallest unit of living things

21. What is a Tissue? 
A structure with a certain function or job made up of groups of cells.

22. What is an organ made of?                                   
Specialized cells and tissues.

23. What is a joint? Give an example and describe their main function.
Which type provides the:
movement: Ball and socket (ex: shoulder)
movement: immovable joints such as those where the bones of your skull join.

24. Pick the correct definition to match each of the terms:
a)Interneurons -- C
b) Motor neuronsA
c) Sensory neurons - B

A. message travels along these from brain to muscles that actually move, whether voluntary or involuntary.
B. nerves that gather information from the world around us through senses (e.g., sight, hearing, touch, etc.).
C. connect the sensory and motor neurons; found in brain or spinal cord.

25. What is “regulation”?  What do humans and other multi-cellular organisms need to regulate?
Regulation means to  control conditions and substances in the internal environment, keeping them in balance.  “Conditions that are regulated include body temperature and pH, while an example of  “substances ” would be amount of water, salt, blood sugar, oxygen, or carbon dioxide.